Real-time Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of an Electric Vehicle Powertrain for Optimal Delivery of Energy Sources

This paper explores the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) with particular emphasize on electric traction drive technologies. This work will then have a look at the different alternative solutions behind each electric vehicle motor drive and the reason behind a particular chosen type of motor, its control architecture to get the most performance out of the existing traction systems. The theoretical model prediction of what a real-world vehicle would perform is developed resembling when given ideal transient conditions applied and then simulate an EV power distribution system hybridizes the PV solar and battery resources in a real-time manner. The developed model is constructed through MATLAB/Simulink and executed on real-time hardware setup. It includes distributed energy resources (DERs: Battery, Solar Photovoltaic) and its associated power electronics DC-DC converter and controls, DC-AC inverter to drive the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM). The drivetrain control scheme includes both speed, max torque-per-ampere and field weakening controllers to offer EV operation within extended speed and torque ranges comparable to available EV technologies such as BMW iX3. Different operating scenarios are evaluated deploying controller HIL and the obtained results validated the theoretical expectations and overall performance of the studied self-charging EV drive system.